The master’s degree is an academic degree that university graduates earn upon completion of a second academic program. Students who wish to enroll in a master’s degree program are required to have a bachelor’s degree or another degree or diploma from one of the single-stage academic programs traditional in the German system (Magister, Diplom, first state exam (Staatsexamen) in law or teaching credential (Lehramt) program; degree in medicine). A doctoral program (Promotion) leads to the academic degree of doctor (Doktorat) in a specific discipline. This degree is considered as a proof of the student’s aptitude to work scientifically or academically at an advanced level. It is based on an independent academic work – the dissertation – and an oral exam.