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Creative Commons licenses

The internationally recognized Creative Commons model has largely established itself in the open-access context; therefore, Creative Commons licenses can also by applied to content on Refubium.

Creative Commons licenses are used by creators to grant the public the right to use their publications in certain ways. For that purpose, the non-profit organisation "Creative Commons" has developped six standard licenses that crators can use to legally define terms and conditions for the use of their work.

The licenses are characterized by the possibility to combine different ready-made components that serve to either give permissions or make restrictions.

The four basic components that can be combined in a license are these:






Creator has to be named.



Commercial use of the work or use for financial gain is not permitted.


No Derivatives

Adaptations of the work are not permitted.


Share Alike

Redistribution of (adapted versions of) the work are permitted only under the terms of the original license.

The four license components can be combined in six meaningful ways, resulting in different levels of restrictiveness:




Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)   


Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0)


Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-ND 4.0)


Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)


Attribution- NonCommerzial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)


Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

You can also use Creative Commons Zero if you want to impose no restrictions at all.
Using Creative Commons Zero (or CC0 for short) dedicates your work to the public domain, whereby redistribution restricted by no terms and conditions at all. Creators or rights holders who apply CC0 waive all of their rights to the work.

Important notes for you as licensor:

  • Licensors should read and understand the terms of the selected license before they apply it.

  • Once a CC license has been applied to a work / a publication, it cannot be retracted. (Licenses are irrevocable.)

  • The rights management and the application of CC licenses lies completely in the author's / the creator's / the rights holder's responsibility.
  • By applying a CC licenses, you will not enter into an agreement with Creative Commons, the organization, nor will you transfer any of your rights to the organization.
  • Authors who have already transferred the entire rights to their work to a publisher can no longer apply a CC license at a later point in time.