Lüers studied biology in Berlin, Königsberg, and Greifswald.
In 1948, he was named the head of the Genetics Department of the Institute of Medicine and Biology of the German Academy of Sciences. Starting in 1951, Lüers was a professor at Humboldt-Universität. Then, in 1954, he became a department chair at the then-Max Planck Institute of Comparative Hereditary Biology and Pathology (Max-Planck-Institut für Vergleichende Erbbiologie und -pathologie).
From 1956 onward, Lüer was a professor at Freie Universität and the Director of the Institute of Genetics. He retired in 1976.