Copyright-protected works may not be used without the consent of the author (or the beneficial owner). Otherwise, these parties may demand damages – typically in the amount that a license to use the work would have cost. They may also be able to demand attorneys’ fees. Copyright infringement can be costly!
Texts that are considered generally accessible common property are not protected, for example, official works (laws, regulations, announcements) or information and events (also including scientific and scholarly findings and discoveries such as formulas, but these items could, under certain circumstances, be protected by patents).
Copyright protects personal intellectual creations. It arises and shall apply from the creation of a particular work. Texts and speeches, photos and movies, paintings, prints and drawings, as well as (city) maps or tables are all protected.